In a fall, the blood vessels under the skin and in the underlying tissue layers are damaged. It shows first a redness and swelling, later changes the color of the hematoma and it appear the typical bruises. These are usually harmless. However, in addition to the skin discoloration, swelling and mild pain more or more severe symptoms on, urgent medical attention should be sought.
Some people experience bruising even in the case of minor bumps, while others are naturally more resistant and only show corresponding hematomas in the event of severe bumps, blows or bruises."A bruise is a hemorrhage in the body, without blood to the outside," quotes the news agency "dpa" the chief physician for internal intensive care medicine and infectiology at the Johanniter clinics in Bonn, Peter Walger. This bruise is caused by a squeezing of tissue, in which microvessels tear down under the skin, adds the Munich sports physician Professor Martin Halle to the news agency.
Bruising should have subsided after three weeks
Especially children have bruises due to their falls and collisions in the playground or kindergarten, but also in older people, these are increasingly due to the decreasing vascular elasticity increase. If blood vessels are damaged inside the body, for example, the blood can run into the subcutaneous tissue or accumulate in body cavities.
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When the blood clots, the color of the hematoma changes to dark blue, later the hematoma becomes even darkerand then yellow-green. After about two weeks, minor bruising usually subsided."In general, it takes two to three weeks until the blood cells are broken down," said Professor Reiner Hartenstein from the Professional Association of German internists. The color changes make the stages of the degradation process clearer, the expert explains.
Causes Causes of Hematomas to Occur
People who need to take blood thinners or anticoagulants are particularly susceptible to hematoma formation. Even patients with diseases that cause a disturbed blood clotting, show increased spontaneous bleeding.
For both groups the bruising is quite a risk, which is why a timely medical check-up is required and appropriate medical treatment must be initiated if necessary. In general, sudden bruising, the causes of which are unclear to those affected, should be clarified by a doctor, according to Professor Walger to the "dpa".Trigger could be a harmless tendency to bruise, but possible causes are also side effects of a drug, a disturbed blood clotting by a hitherto unknown disease or even a tumor. Increases Bruising in Disturbed Blood Coagulation
Following severe falls or bumps, hematomas can occur as a result of bone fractures( fractures) or torn ligaments( ruptures).In both cases sufferers usually have severe pain and show restricted movement and a significant swelling of the corresponding body part. If a fracture or rupture is suspected, medical advice should always be sought and medical treatment should be provided. Otherwise, the risk of complications and injuries increases. If bruises occur again and again for no apparent reason, check whether serious illnesses are the cause of the hematoma.
For example, haemophilia shows impaired blood clotting, which may be the cause of the bruises. Even in the most common congenital disorder with increased bleeding tendency, the Willebrand-Jürgens syndrome, sufferers affected by a disorder of blood clotting. In addition, there are numerous other diseases such as the liver or the hematopoietic system, in which increased hematomas may occur.
medication as a trigger of hematoma?
drugs whose active ingredients promote the appearance of bruises are, for example, acetylsalicylic acid( ASA) or coumarin derivatives, as they act on blood coagulation. Many people are unaware that they are also affecting the function of platelets over several days with ASA-containing painkillers and thus inhibit their blood clotting.
hematomas due to cortisone intake are also possible because it affects the skin structure. In case of sudden, seemingly groundless, occurring bruising should therefore be urgently checked for any link with the revenue of pharmaceuticals.
When to the doctor?
Medical Assistance should also be sought if hematomas are associated with symptoms such as severe swelling and pain, circulatory failure, dizziness, impaired body function or fever. Increased caution is also required for complaints to the abdomen, chest or head. Hematomas are not always visible here, as it can lead to hemorrhages inside the body, which can sometimes be life-threatening. Abdominal bleeding, for example, can cause abdominal pain and circulatory problems. The particularly menacing cerebral hemorrhages are often associated with headaches and neurological disorders such as paralysis or consciousness.
Cooling and Raising
In the case of common hematomas, the so-called PECH rule is a good approach to initial care: rest, ice, compression, high-altitude storage. Timely cooling can reduce blood leakage into the tissue and reduce swelling. Ice should never be placed directly on the skin, but always a thin cloth between the skin and cooling be placed, otherwise threatening cold and skin damage. The high-altitude storage relieves the damaged tissue. Later cooling of the blue spot is pointless, emphasizes Professor Halle. This had to happen immediately after the fall or impact. In the further course, however, ointments can be used which act against the swelling and inflammation, thereby promoting the healing of the hematoma.(sb)