Growing mushrooms yourself: Instructions and tips for mushroom growing
Mushroom cultivation homemade Mushroom cultivation belongs to gardening. This practice proliferates and cultivates edible mushrooms, harvests and markets them. For historical reasons, champignon is at the center of commercial mushroom cultivation.
Table of Contents
Dark Delicacies for the Sun King
Light and Dark Culture
When are mushrooms ripe?
Growing Mushrooms Outside: Tools and Important Notes
Dark Delicacies for the Sun King
Louis XIV, the Sun King, had mushrooms grown in the 17th century. These were considered a delicacy, and the field and meadow mushrooms had to be laboriously collected. The French ruler now let them breed in dark vaults. It was only in the 20th century that the industry began to cultivate mushrooms in bulk. These served dark halls as well as mine tunnels or bomb shelters from the world wars.
In China, shiitake mushrooms have been cultivated for a long time, and globalization has spread these cultivated mushrooms worldwide. In Germany, the champignon with nearly 60,000 tons is far ahead, followed by shiitake and oyster mushroom with 500 tons and herb pancake with 200 tons. Forest mushrooms can not be cultivated today despite numerous attempts.
So far, mushroom growers have rarely organized themselves into over-the-counter associations, in Germany and Switzerland just a dozen companies. In terms of mushroom cultivation, Germany is "developing country".China produces 1.4 million tons of mushrooms every year, and the US still produces 0.38 million tons.
More on this subject:
Dark spots in mushrooms not bad
Health hazards in mushroom picking: risk of life-threatening mushroom poisoning
Mushrooms in culture: use, effects and importance for humans
Light and dark culture
The Chanpignon is a typical fungus for a dark culture,the less light he gets, the better. The Asian mushrooms, however, are light fungi.
Each type of fungus needs a specific substrate( nutrient medium) to grow, both in nature and in culture. As a basis, for example, straw, sawdust or wood chips. These can also influence the taste of the mushrooms.
This substrate must first "lazy" for the mushrooms to grow. It is irrigated continuously for several days, so that the decomposition of the material begins. Then the mushroom gardeners pasteurize the substrate so that no unwanted organisms spread.
For mushrooms, wheat grains are the basis, they are inoculated with the mycelium. If the grains of the mycelium are mixed, we call them champignon brood.
When the fruiting body forms, the temperature, humidity, CO2 content and amount of light must be correct. In modern companies, these conditions are created by climate computers. This ensures that there are a lot of mushrooms at a certain time.
To cultivate mushrooms themselves, they cultivate a mushroom spawn in the garden trade and provide suitable substrate. Specialist shops offer special substrates with straw, bark mulch or grain. But they do not necessarily have to buy something like that: Especially the tasty herb sauces thrive excellently on coffee grounds.
To do this, crumble the mushroom spawn into very small pieces and mix with the previously dried coffee powder. The mixture comes into the seed pot, they cover well and ensure that the substrate remains moist for about 4 weeks.
After two to four weeks, the mycelium has grown through the substrate. Now the lid off. The fruiting bodies now emerge in several bursts. In total, a substrate of coffee grounds is enough for about 6 crops.
Oyster mushrooms are usually sold in specialized stores as a fully growing substrate block. Store them in a room with moist air. It is best to turn on a nebulizer if available, or place a plastic wrap on the substrate. The temperature should be between 18 and 25 degrees.
When are mushrooms ripe?
Flour the plugs, then the fruiting bodies first develop at the air holes. If the mushrooms are about 8 to 11 inches tall, you can turn them out.
Include the stump so that bacteria do not spread. After about three weeks rest follows the next harvest. After about five crops, the substrate is leached out.
mushrooms are also available as ready-made cultures plus a bag with cover soil. They cover the substrate in a dish with the earth and cover it with plastic. Alternatively, there is a wooden box, which they line with foil. Now keep everything moist at 12 degrees to 20 degrees. Cover the box with foil until the first outgrowths form on the surface, they are in desperate need of air.
Once the mushrooms are developed, you can harvest every two weeks, for about five months.
To grow mushrooms outside: Tools and important hints
In garden, yard or balcony mushrooms can be excellently pulled. The conditions are different for individual species: brown oysters like oyster mushrooms love bales of straw, which they soak with water for two days in the later spring. Let the bale dribble for a day afterwards.
Tip: If you have a rain barrel, always put the bale in from different sides. Use a stick to drill holes in the straw at a distance of 20 centimeters and insert the mushroom spawn. When the bale of straw is filled with the brood, cover it with foil to increase the humidity.
If all goes well, after five to six weeks, the bale is soaked in mushroom braid at about 20-25 degrees, and you can harvest up to six kilos of mushrooms every three weeks.
The main sources of error are: wetness, drought and pests. The straw must be moist, but not wet. Therefore, pay attention to a place where it is not exposed to rain or blazing sun. On very hot days spray the bale better again. Suitable for this are compressed air spray bottles.
You can also use straw pellets that swell in a bucket of water, then mix the brood, bind everything in plastic bags and tie it up. However, there must be some air holes so that the whole thing does not die. They store the bags at about 15 degrees Celsius. The mycelium appears after about 3 weeks. Now remove the plastic wrap and place the growing mushrooms in a bright place with no direct sunlight.
For this method lime mushroom, Schopftintling, Rosa Seitling, Kräuterseitling, Braunkappe and oyster mushroom are suitable.(Dr. Utz Anhalt)
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